computational holography

compotational holography: computer-generated holograms. by David Cary

Updated 2000-08-05.

contents: [FIXME: Need Work ! But that's obvious, isn't it ? Suggestions ?]

  1. holography humor
  2. misc
  3. Monster Bibliography
  4. Cool stuff that's only tangentially related to Computational Holography
  5. Buzzwords

See also


Classic holography is phase-angle modulation of (single-frequency) light. (How is "full spectrum" "white-light" holography done ?)

Can holography be done in a not-completely-dark room if one uses (a) plenty of frequency-specific filters and/or (b) "black and white" film insensitive to the (visible) ambient light ?

what is this ? holovideo benton

The program "Holocrunchies" that was at "" and calculated computer generated holograms has apparently gone offline. More information is available at "Computer Generated Holograms on the Web" article by Jeff Breidenbach (1996)

2001-12-17:DAV: Good news ! has been released !

Subject: Re: Computer Holography?
From: (Jens Kilian)
Date: 19 Jan 1996 07:00:05 GMT

Andre Krause ( wrote:
> Except the fact that you must print out a fairly big pattern (approx
> 10'000x10'000), as far as I understand, you must photograph this paper
> on holographic photo-plate with a line-resolution of approximately 1000
> Lines per mm. So I mean, this could be a very complicated process. If the
> lense of a normal photo-camera is good enough for such a task ?
> And do we have to use monochromatic light ??
> I've heard rumours about a paper describing this process with laser printed
> pattern. Maybe someone knows the origin.
> (sorry about my english)

Mark Lucente mentions in his PhD thesis that he did something like this
using a laser printer (the thesis is available from the MIT Media Lab's
web site,



Subject: Re: Computer Holography?
From: Tobias Haist <>
Date: 19 Jan 1996

Andre Krause <> wrote:
>you must print out a fairly big pattern (approx
>10'000x10'000), as far as I understand, you must photograph this paper
>on holographic photo-plate with a line-resolution of approximately 1000
>Lines per mm. So I mean, this could be a very complicated process. If the
>lense of a normal photo-camera is good enough for such a task ?

The number of pixels depends on the quality you want/need. We do here
CGHs on LCDs with 320x400 Pixels ! And this works quite good.
So no problem with size and resolution in principle.
You have to keep in mind that you can increase quality by not simply
simulating the process of a conventional Hologram Recording. Instead
you use some more or less clever algorithms. If you do a simple simulation
you need indeed some billions of pixels for a fresnel hologram.
(see also some of the other postings)

You don't need monochromatic light for the photoreduction.

If you do a fourier CGH (has some advantages) the resolution is more
or less unimportant (that's why we can do this with LCDs). So there
is no problem with resolution.

Bye. Tobi.

Article 1520 of sci.optics:
Newsgroups: sci.optics
Subject: Re: References for computing holograms
Message-ID: <>
From: (Peter Monta)
Date: 8 Feb 93 05:15:19 GMT
Sender: (USENET News System)
Distribution: usa
Organization: MIT Advanced Television Research Program
Lines: 14 (richard marlon stein) writes:

> I'm in search of some classical algorithms used to compute holographic
> images, like the variety I"ve seen come out of the MIT Media Lab.  I've
> seen S. Benton's work, but can't find any good introductory material
> that explains how to construct them via a computer, and then project them
> for visualization purposes.  Thanks in advance.

SPIE publishes a book in their "Milesonte Series" called _Selected
Papers on Computer-Generated Holograms and Diffractive Optics_.
I've found it very interesting reading.  ~500pp, ~50 papers.

Peter Monta
MIT Advanced Television Research Program

Subject: Re: [QUERY] rendering hologrammatic diffraction patterns
From: (NetMan)
Date: Fri, 26 Apr 1996 01:03:18 GMT (Paul Kahler) wrote:

>My gosh! I was just thinking about this type of thing this morning!
>I was contemplating if there will come a day when we'll see realtime
>hollograms of some form. This lead me to wonder if they could make
>LCDs with enough resolution to do it. Nevermind the computational

I guess you probably know that they have created real time hologram
projection at MIT already using a crystal that diffract light
differentlly when stimulated with sound waves. Acoustoptical crytals.
They had a photo of a little starship enterprise image coming out of
the end of it. The resolution was low maybe 100x100 but it was
realtime (and moncolor blue I think.) the compute calculate the
diffraction pttern on the fly and the starship could rotate etc in
real time.

I always wondered what kind of image you would get if you set up a
virtual hologram table in POVRAY using a point light source and an
"interference plate" plane opposite a 100% reflecting plane to get say
an interference hologram of some dxf model and put the camera position
such that the interference plate filled the screen image viewpoint.  I
guess POVRAY doesn't take into account wavelengths even though you can
"dial in" a pure color light source.
But the pov ray source code is out there and perhaps it would not be
too hard to modify it to take into account wavelength and crest trough
reinforcement as you trace the light beam reflections and
transmissions. Seems like it would just be a matter of keeping track
of the path length from the light source to the final interference
plate in the virtual set up to compute if that intersection is a crest
or a trough. keep a running total for each point on the plate which
would correspond exactly with the screen pixels if you set up the
camera position correctly and viola!

The nice thing would be you could dial in any wavelength to make a
hologram pattern for  say a wavelength corresponding to sound instead
of light and then print it out on a sound opacity medium and use a
wavelength pure sound source to create a holographic sound projection
of the image. Point it at a Dolphin and watch em freak out.<G>

The opinions expressed here are those of the fingers
of NetMan only; not those of NetMan himself.

Please reply via this newsgroup. No Email unless requested,

See more POVray information at computer_graphics_tools.html#standard

John Bailey agrees that there is a strong link between computed holograms and quantum computing.


From: stgprao@seismic.sugarland.unocal.COM (Richard Ottolini)
Subject: Re: computer generated holograms
Date: 29 Sep 1995 17:36:29 GMT
Andre Krause  <> wrote:
>If you want to generate a holographic image by computer,
>But I hope there exist more clever methods. If you know of one, please post !

1) First there are all kinds of tricks to reduce calculations
such as limited the angular aperture, especially vertically.  Also doing
the calculation you describe in transform space where a convolution
becomes a product.  The 1995 SIGGRAPH proceedings MIT Media Lab
holograph paper mentions other shortcuts.

The SIGGRAPH paper was computing simple realtime animated
holographs on a gigaflop machine.

From: haist at (Tobias Haist)
Subject: Re: Computer Holography?
To: cary at (David Cary)
Date: Mon, 21 Oct 1996 14:48:30 +0200 (MET DST)
MIME-Version: 1.0

Hi !

No problem with quoting my mail on your WWW Page. (You can also
correct the orthographic errors I made.)

> >Hmmm. Yes. We use the LCD-CGHs basically not for display purposes (
> >although this doesn't matter since the design remains the same).
> What do you do with holograms besides look at them with human eyes ?

A lot of things. basically a hologram is something that deflects
light in a rather strange way. Of course you can use this in nearly
all fields of (coherent) optics. Some important examples:

scanners (supermarket barcode)
beamshaping for high power lasers
optical inform. processing/computing (e.g. optical connections, fan-outs)
filters for analog-optical recognition (correlators)
projections onto surfaces
correction of aberrations (e.g. telescopes)
applications in measurement science
  (e.g. in interferometers, confocal microsc.))
quality control of aspeherical elements

and so on and on.

> I've heard rumors that a flat hologram of a arbitrarily complex optical
> system of lenses and mirrors can replace that system, but I am skeptical.
This works. No problem with that. This is used in a lot of products.
For example CD players often use a CGH (small and not much weight) in
order to get error signals and focussing with one cheap element replacing
several lenses and beam-splitters.
The problem (dependend on the application) with that is that you will
get errors because - again - the resolution (and quantization) of the
CGH should be as high as possible and simply often isn't high enough.

 > It's not *real*; how can photons passing through empty space be
> bent/reflected by the illusion of a lens/mirror ?
Although we have to deal with different phaenomena (diffraction, refraction)
both of them are physical effects and as such can be used to defelect
light. So everythings fine with that approach. The systems are entirly
different but have the same input/output relationship. That's the
same with 2 computer programs programmed by different people
solving the same problem.

> >The problem therefore is (at least in my eyes) that realtime
> >CGH display at useful quality can't be achieved today at reasonable
> >price. So we have to wait some years ...
> I was planning on working up from the bottom, "How good a CGH can I make
> with just the stuff I'm able to scrounge up surplus, on a very limited
> hobbyist budget ?".

Difficult to say. If you are lucky, you will get a cheap LCD with
enough optical accuracy. Unfortunatly the manufacturers won't give you
any technical data on optical flatness and such things. Therefore
you really need some luck. We use rather expensive (5..10 k$) LCDs.
At least you need a laser (e.g. HeNe), polarizers and the LCD.
I wouldn't use it for 3D displays. I doubt that you will get
reasonable quality. Other approaches for simple 3D displays
seem to be more appropriate today.

> Extremely crude, I'm sure, but I might stumble on some clever tricks. (Have
> you seen the "Hand Drawn Holograms" link on my web page ?).
Not yet.

> >Most of commercial LCDs are
> >twisted nematic.
> ...
> >the refractive index also depends on the
> >rotation. Therefore the refractive index (-> the phase delay) is also
> >modulated.
> So you're taking advantage of a *side effect*. Clever.

Yes. For a typical LCD manufacturer this is indeed a side effect.
Therefore they unfoirtunatly don't optimize/measure the phase shift.

> >Using polarizers you get an additional nonlinear phase
> >shift
> ...
> >Very interessting and useful, but too complicated to be discussed here
> >(my diplom thesis contained something about this).
> I hear that the MIT Media Lab is
> putting all their thesises (? thesii ?) online. If yours is online, I might
> skim through quickly, but it sounds like polarizers really just get in the
> way of what I'm trying to do.

The thesis is written in  german and quite difficult to translate (apart
from being 160 pages long). So it should be unfortunatly useless for you.

> I will probably just strip off those polarization filters so I (hopefully)
> get a nice linear phase shift and avoid having the polarizers absorb half
> my laser light. (I must experiment on some dead watch LCD displays to see
> if I can really do this without ruining everything).
> If I am extremely lucky, the "full off" to "full on" grayscale values of a
> LCD display will be able to modulate the phase by a full 0 to 2pi.

Yes.  Although you can even achieve with 0.5 to 0.8 PI quite good results.
Intensity is no problem if you are using a laser ! We always have to dim
down our cheap 5 mW HeNe. The main advantage of CGHs vs. other displays
is, that the light isn't absorbed but redirected onto the reconstructed
image. That's why you use CGHs if you want to change the shape of
a high power Laser system for material processing. If you would not
use a CGH, a lot of the (rather expensive) laser energy would be wasted
so you would need e.g. a 20 kW laser instead of a 5 kW laser.

> >you can of course always use
> ...
> > as an amplitude modulator (-> amplitude
> >holograms (with all their problems)).
> It's extremely common practice in communications electronics to seperate 2
> fixed phases, amplitude modulate them independently, then recombine them,
> in order to get any arbitrary desired amplitude or phase. Perhaps it would
> be possible to do the same sort of thing with optics phase and/or
> polarization.

Yes. This is indeed the same direction that leads to pancharatnams phase.
(at least the basic principle, although you use two different polarization
states instead of 2 different phases)

> >If you are planing to really do some optical experiments, you
> >should be contact me again because there are some practical
> >issues to be considered in deciding which LCD to buy.
> I'm still in the "Let's collect lots of info on it, and see if it's
> actually within my budget and skills before I spend any Real Money on it"
> phase.
> Even if I decide that using LCD panels is way to expensive for me, the
> Suleski article (on my web site) seems to indicate that hard-copy CGH is
> well within my budget.

Yes. We tested to simply print out a hologram with our
HP Laserjet 4 (at 300 DPI) onto a standard overhead foile. It works.
The quality isn't as good as with LCDs (cause the surface of the
foil is quite irregular and bad) but in principle, it works.

> Is this "\bibitem[]{}" a standard reference format ? I have seen this
> somewhere else before ... it doesn't look like any of the standard formats
> my English teach taught in school.

It's Tex (Latex) Format. I gave you this because my thesis was written in

> Huh ? What do genetic algorithms have to do with holograms ? Sure, they're
> interesting AI tools, but ...

The main problem with CGH calculation is, that you have to optimize
the holograms in order to achieve reasonable quality. Therefore
really a lot of different algorithms are used. One class
of algorithms for this optimizations are genetic algorithms.
Simply stated the problem is: Which pixels do I have to set in
my LCD (diffractive element) in order to achieve best quality of
hologram reconstruction. This is a quite difficult optimization
problem since you have a lot of degrees of freedom (because you have
a lot of pixels).

Bye. Hope this helps. Tobi.

Tobias Haist <haist at>
Institut für Technische Optik, University of Stuttgart
PGP Welcome
("finger -l" to obtain the public key code)

Monster Bibliography

Silly me, I expected that, since the subject *assumed* a computer in the first place, that all the latest and greatest stuff would be on the web.

Nope. After discovering something worthwhile, these people published it in books. <Sigh>. I guess I'm going to have to go to the library and/or to Powell's Technical Bookstore and see if I can special order any of these books.

-- David Cary

F. S. Yu, A. Tal, H. Chen, Optical Engineering, Vol.19 No.5,
  pp. 666-678, "One-step rainbow holography: recent development
  and application."

H. Caulfield, National Geographic, Vol.165, No.3, p. 372

??? Mechanically Generated Holograms, Applied Optics 1992 ??

Subject: Re: Computer Holography?
From: (Thomas J. Suleski)
Date: 19 Jan 1996 00:08:42 GMT

In article <4dkjcp$>, (Darran Edmundson)

> I faintly recall that it is practical to create a hologram of a very simple
> object by computing the intensity pattern, printing it out on a piece of
> and shrinking the pattern onto a transparency.  Is this just the misguided
> product of a physics dream or is it actually (and practically) possible?
> Is there any "Physics Teacher" or "American Journal of Physics" articles
> on this subject - i.e. is it a practical project for computer-oriented high
> schoolers under proper supervision?
> Regards,
> Darran Edmundson

Not only is it possible, it is actually quite practical. My research group
and I have written a number of papers on the subject (more specifically
for diffractive optics, but the principles are the same). We make masks
all the time with feature sizes down to about 6-8 micrometers using
desktop publishing. Somewhat simplified, the procedure is as follows:

1) Design your mask pattern (using Mathematica. Matlab, Code V, etc..
anything that can generate a PostScript file).
2) Import the PS file into a graphics program (we use Macromedia Freehand)
for scaling and/or adding additional info.
3) Have the file printed at a commercial graphics arts house by an
imagesetter on transparent film. Cost is about $25 for a letter sized
page. These are 3600 dpi (or higher) imagesetters, though.
4) Photoreduce the transparency onto a high resolution film plate. You can
get good film/holographic plates (5000 lines/mm) for around $80 for a box
of 30. The lens we use is an off the shelf Rodenstock, fixed 10X reduction
lens (about $170). The lens is what limits us to 6-8 micron features.
We're working on a diffraction limited setup, though.
5) Voila. You get an amplitude mask with a useful area of about 20 mm by
20 mm with features down to 6-8 microns for about $30, counting the cost
of the transparency and film plate.

We typically take these masks and use them as photolithographic masks to
fabricate phase structures for higher efficiency. The masks themselves
work quite well, though.

Here are some references if you would like to check them out. Also, feel
free to contact me if you have any more questions.

D. O'Shea, J. Beletic and M. Poutous, "Binary-mask generation for
diffractive optical elements using microcomputers," Applied Optics 32,
2566-2572 (1993).

T. Suleski and D. O'Shea, "Fidelity of PostScript generated masks for
diffractive optics fabrication," Applied Optics 34, 627-635 (1995).

T. Suleski and D. O'Shea, "Gray-scale masks for diffractive optics
fabrication: I. Commercial slide imagers," Applied Optics 34, 7507-7517

D. O'Shea and W. Rockward, "Gray-scale masks for diffractive optics
fabrication: II. Spatially filtered halftone screens," Applied Optics 34,
7518-7526 (1995).

Let me know if I can be of any more help.


Thomas J. Suleski                         |
School of Physics and                     |(404)-894-9958 (FAX)
Center for Optical Science and Engineering|
Georgia Institute of Technology           |
Atlanta, GA 30332-0430                    |

From: (John Bailey)
Subject: Re: 3D to holographic image
Date: 1 Oct 1995 16:38:53 GMT

> (Lars Michler) writes:
>> I am looking on information on how to convert a computer-generated
>> 3D volume/object into a holographic image.

Thanks very much for a question that became very stimulating as I
researched an answer.
First: On the grounds that if a person can do it, so can a computer, look at
Then I just did a search through the local library system's on-line service
and came up with a number of hits.  I was suprised at the variety because
I haven't had any contact with the field for several years.
These are listed in summary form as follows.

But before I list the bibliography, I need to tell you one more thing:
the real inspiration came when I conjectured that building computer
generated holograms is plausibly the killer-app for quantum computing.
I'm going to chew on that for a while and then I'll get back to you.


Bibliographic summary:

4 Tanaka, Ken'ichi           (Electronics & communications in J... 03/01/95)
     Computer-Generated Holograms by Error Diffusion Meth...

7 Fetthauer, F.                           (Optics communications.  02/01/95)
     Computer-generated Fresnel holograms: quantization w...

36 Jacobsen, Chris            (Journal of vacuum science & techn... 11/01/92)

     Projection x-ray lithography using computer-generate...

 39 Macgregor, A.e.            (American journal of physics.     ... 09/01/92)
     Computer generated holograms from dot matrix and las...

 40 Stein, Alan D.             (Computers in physics.            ... 07/01/92)
     Computrer-generated holograms: A simplified ray-trac...

 41 Roberts, Nicholas C.                           (Applied optics.  06/10/92)
     Multilevel computer-generated holograms with separab...

 42 Bolstad, Hans Christ                      (Optical engineering.  06/01/92)
     Optimization of phase-only computer-generated hologr...

 43 Saarinen, J.                              (Electronics letters.  04/23/92)
     Computer-generated waveguide holograms by double-ion...

 46 Kato, Masaru                                   (Applied optics.  02/10/92)
     Computer-generated holograms: application to intensi...

 49 Leseberg, Detlef           (Applied optics.                  ... 01/10/92)
     Computer-generated three-dimensional image holograms...        **FAX 1HR*
0 Guven, M.H.                (Doga.  Turkish journal of physics =  1992    )
     Synthesis of Computer Generated Digital Amplitude Ho...

 51 Kawai, Shigeru             (Japanese journal of applied physi... 12/15/91)
     Computer-Generated Holograms for Free-Space Optical

 52 Ichikawa, Hiroyuki         (Optical engineering :  the journa... 12/01/91)
     Noninterferometric fabrication of computer-generated...

52 Ichikawa, Hiroyuki         (Optical engineering :  the journa... 12/01/91)
     Noninterferometric fabrication of computer-generated...

 67 Coops, P.                         (Philips journal of research.  1990    )
     Mass production methods for computer-generated holog...

 68 Mait, J.N.                                     (Applied optics.  11/15/89)
     Computer generated holograms by means of a magnetoop...

 70 Hunter, Roger                                        (Geotimes.  09/01/89)
     Creating holograms from computer generated images.

 71 Urquhart, Kristopher                           (Applied optics.  08/15/89)
     Computer aided design of computer generated hologram...

 73 Frere, Christian                               (Applied optics.  06/15/89)
     Large objects reconstructed from computer-generated

 74 Jennison, Brian K.         (Journal of the Optical Society of... 02/01/89)
     Analysis of the leakage from computer-generated holo...

 75 Freude, W.                                     (Applied optics.  12/15/88)
     Computer-generated holograms with error compensation...

 77 Caulfield, H. John                       (Computers in physics.  03/01/88)
     Computer-Generated Holograms Arrive: Practical CGHs

John Bailey

From: haist at (Tobias Haist)
Subject: Re: Computer Holography?
To: cary at (David Cary)
Date: Wed, 16 Oct 1996 09:44:39 +0200 (MET DST)
Mime-Version: 1.0

Hi !

> I have suddenly become interested in computed holography.
> I have gathered together what little I have been able to find out on the
> subject, looked at the web info from MID on (acousto-optic) real-time
> animated holograms.

> While sifting, I discovered your note on doing CGH with LCD panels. This
> would seem to be much more appropriate to a hobbyist such as myself,
> looking for clever tricks. (I got the impression the the MIT device was a
> incredibly expensive, brute-force approach).

Hmmm. Yes. We use the LCD-CGHs basically not for display purposes (
although this doesn't matter since the design remains the same).
For display purposes you generally need only horizontal parallax.
Therefore a CGH with high horizontal and low vertical resultion
seems to be best choice. That's why the AOM approach at MIT is
in principle not bad (although indeed far to expensive).
Best thing would be a LCD (or a combination made out of some LCDs)
with 10.000 ... 20.000 pixel horizontal and about 400 pixel vertical.
Unfortunatly this isn't availlable up till now.
The problem therefore is (at least in my eyes) that realtime
CGH display at useful quality can't be achieved today at reasonable
price. So we have to wait some years ...

> I'd appreciate you taking a moment to give me any pointers. How do I use a
> LCD panel to generate holograms ? I thought they fundamentally generated
> polarization modulation, rather than the phase modulation requred of a
> hologram.

Yes and no. 1.) the pinciple strongly depends on the type of LCD (twisted
nematic, planar nematic, FLC, ...). Most of commercial LCDs are
twisted nematic. So I will give you some hints for them: the modulation
of polarization is achieved by the rotation of long molecules. It's
easy to imagine that the refreactive index also depends on the
rotation. Therefore the refractive index (-> the phase delay) is also
modulated. This happens even without any polarizers in front/behind the
display. Using polarizers you get an additional nonlinear phase
shift, known as pancheratnam's phase or geometrical phase or berry phase.
Very interessting and useful, but too complicated to be discussed here
(my diplom thesis contained something about this).

Apart from all this, you can of course always use the SLM not as
a phase modulator but as an amplitude modulator (-> amplitude
holograms (with all their problems)).

If you are planing to really do some optical experiments, you
should be contact me again because there are some practical
issues to be considered in deciding which LCD to buy.

> You probably already are aware of everything I've pulled and posted on my
> web site, but perhaps you may find something of interest.

Yes. There are some references I didn't knew.

I give you some of my references (I have not everything typed
into computer) for the extension of your list (but you have to sort out
for yourselve which of them are already present in your list).

\bibitem[akah73]{akahori} H. Akahori: ``Comparison of Deterministic Phase
Coding with Random Phase Coding in Terms of Dynamic Range'', Applied
Optics 12, S. 2336 (1973)

\bibitem[alle75]{allebach} J.P. Allebach, B. Liu: ``Minimax spectrum
shaping with a bandwidth constraint'', Applied Optics 14, S. 3062

\bibitem[alle76]{allebach76} J.P. Allebach, N.C. Gallagher, B. Liu:
``Aliasing error in digital holography'', Applied Optics 15, S. 2183

\bibitem[alle81]{allebach81} J.P. Allebach: ``Representation--related
errors in binary digital holograms: a unified analysis'', Applied
Optics 20, S. 290 (1981)

\bibitem[arav92]{aravind} P.K. Aravind: ``A simple proof of
Pancharatnam's theorem'', Optics Communications 94, S. 191 (1992)

\bibitem[barn88]{barnard} E. Barnard: ``Optimal error diffusion for
computer-generated holograms'', JOSA A 5, S. 1803 (1988)

\bibitem[barn89]{barnes} T.H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matusda, N. Ooyama:
``Phase--only modulation using a twisted nematic liquid crystal
television'', Applied Optics 28, S. 4845 (1989)

\bibitem[berg93]{bergeron} A. Bergeron, H.H. Arsenault, J. Gauvin,
D.J. Gingras: ``Computer--generated holograms improved by a global
iteratve coding'', Optical Engineering 32, S. 2216 (1993)

\bibitem[berg95]{bergeron2} A. Bergeron, J. Gauvin, F. Gagnon, D.
Gingras, H.H. Arsenault, M. Doucet: ``Phase calibration and
applications of a liquid--crystal spatial light modulator'', Applied
Optics 34, S. 5133 (1995)

\bibitem[berr87]{berry} M.V. Berry: ``The adiabatic phase and
Pancharatnam's phase for polarized light'', Journal of Modern Optics,
34, S. 1401 (1987)
\bibitem[berr90]{berry2} M.V. Berry: ``Anticipations of the Geometric
Phase'', Physics Today 12/90, S. 34 (1990)

\bibitem[bonn93]{bonnel} L. Bonnel, P. Gravey: ``Application of
Photothermoplastic Holograms to Single Mode Fibre Optical Interconnects'',
4th international
Conference on Holographic Systems, Components and Applications, IEE Proceedings No. 379, Neuchatel 1993

\bibitem[blue91]{bluemecke} T. Blümecke: ``Optimierung mit
Evolutionsstrategien und genetischen Algorithmen'', CT 12/91, S. 228 (1991)

\bibitem[born80]{bornwolf} M. Born, E. Wolf: ``Principles of Optics'', Pergamon Press (1980)

\bibitem[bout96]{boutenko} V. Boutenko, R. Chevallier: ''Second--order
direct binary search algorithm for the synthesis of computer--generated
holograms'', Optics Communications 125, S. 43 (1996)
\bibitem[broj89]{broja} M. broja, F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl: ``Digital
Halftoning by iterative Procedure'', Optics Communications 69, S. 205

\bibitem[bräu91]{bräuer} R. Bräuer, F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl:
``Diffusors in digital holography'', JOSA A 8, S. 572 (1991)

\bibitem[brow66]{lohmann} B.R. Brown, A.W. Lohmann: ``Complex Spatial
Filtering with Binary Masks'', Applied Optics 5, S. 967 (1966)

\bibitem[brow91]{brown} D.M. Brown, A.D. Kathman: ``Off--axis
spherical element telescope with binary optic corrector'',
in I. Cindrich, S.H. Lee: ``Computer and Optically generated Holographic
Optics'', Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 1555, S. 114 (1991)

\bibitem[bryn74]{bryngdahl74} O. Bryngdahl: ``Optical Map
Transformations'', Optics Communications 10, S. 164 (1974)

\bibitem[bryn90]{wyrowolf} O. Bryngdahl, F. Wyrowski: ``Digital Holography:
Computer--generated Holograms'', in E. Wolf: Progress in Optics Vol. 28, S. 3 (1990)

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Proceedings of
the SPIE Vol. 1507: ``Holographic Optics 3: Principles and
Applications'', S. 149 (1991)

\bibitem[weis92]{weissbach92}   S. Weissbach, F. Wyrowski: ``Error
diffusion procedure: theory and applications in optical signal
processing'', Applied Optics 31, S. 2516 (1992)

\bibitem[worc96]{worchesky} T.L. Worchesky, K.J. Ritter, B. Lane:
``Large Arrays of spatial light modulators hybridized to silicon
integrated circuits'', Applied Optics 35, S. 1180 (1996)

\bibitem[wyro88]{wyrowski88} F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl: ``Iterative
Fourier--transform algorithm applied to computer holography'', JOSA A
5, S. 1058 (1988)

\bibitem[wyro89a]{wyrowski89} F. Wyrowski: ``Iterative quantization of
digital amplitude holograms'', Applied Optics 28, S. 3864 (1989)

\bibitem[wyro89b]{wyrowski89-2} F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl:
``Speckle--free reconstruction in digital holography'', JOSA A 6, S.
1171 (1989)

\bibitem[wyro90]{wyrowski90} F. Wyrowski: ``Diffraction efficiency of
analog and quantized digital amplitude holograms: analysis and
manipulation'', JOSA A 7, S. 383 (1990)

\bibitem[wyro90b]{wyrowski90-2} F. Wyrowski: ``Diffractive optical
elements: iterative calculation of quantized, blazed phase
structures'', JOSA 7, S. 961 (1990)

\bibitem[wyro91]{wyrowski91} F. Wyrowski: ``Digital phase-encoded
inverse filter for optical pattern recognition'', Applied Optics 30,
S. 4650 (1991)

\bibitem[yin95]{yin} S. Yin, G. Lu, J. Zhang, F.T.S. Yu, J. N. Mait:
``Kinoform--based Nipkow disk for a confocal microscope'', Applied
Optics 34, S. 5695 (1995)

\bibitem[yone76]{yonezawa} S. Yonezawa: ``A Deterministic Shifter for
Holographic Memory Devices'', Optics Communications 19, S. 370 (1976)

\bibitem[zhan95]{zhang} E. Zhang, S. Noethe, C.H. Dietrich, R. Männer:
``Gradual and random binarization of gray--scale holograms'', Applied
Optics 34, S. 5987 (1995)

\bibitem[zhua94]{zhuang} J.Y. Zhuang, O.K. Ersoy: ``Fast
decimation--in--frequency direct binary search algorithms for
synthesis of computer--generated holograms'', JOSA A 11, S. 135 (1994)

Hope this help. Bye.

"Who the hell is General Failure and why is he reading my harddisk ?!?"

Tobias Haist <>
Institut für Technische Optik, University of Stuttgart
PGP Welcome
("finger -l" to obtain the public key code)

Cool stuff that's only tangentially related to Computational Holography

Date: Fri, 18 Oct 1996
From: Brian Wowk <wowk at cc.UManitoba.CA>
Newgroups: sci.nanotech
Subject: Holodeck system

        Thanks to everyone who privately expressed interest in
possibly financing a patent application for my ideas on
Phased Array Optics, or PAO (as outlined in the new book,
Nanotechnology: Molecular Speculations on Global Abundance).

        This past week (thanks to the World Wide Web) I was able
to quickly and easily do what I was not able to do six years ago
when I first cooked up these ideas: do a "prior art" search.
What I discovered was that the idea of real-time holography
using LCDs backlit by laserlight (a PAO precursor of sorts)
dates back to at least 1986.  I also found a very impressive body
of work on real-time holography by Mark Lucente and his colleagues
at the MIT Media Lab

They call their technology electro-holography, or "holovideo".
They use modulated ultrasound to create dynamic microscopic
variations in the refractive index of a transparent crystal.
A scanning slit and rapidly spinning mirror create the illusion
of a stationary refractive index modulation as the waves of
ultrasound race across the crystal.  When laser light is shone
through this AOM (acousto-optical modulator) the resulting phase
variations produce a real-time hologram.

        The MIT work is certainly a technical tour-de-force, but...
it is to PAO as I've described it what Charles Babbages's
Difference Engine is to a Pentium PC.  Where does this leave us?

        There are three ideas inherent in PAO as I've described

       (1) Combined phase and amplitude modulation on a length
           scale <= one wavelength to eliminate visibility of the
           primary laser beam (which is ubiquitous in conventional

       (2) Computer synthesis of images.

       (3) An optical element consisting of individually-addressable
           nanometer-scale phase and transmission modulators.

The static version of (1) is a specialized form of holography
called kinoform, so it is not a new idea.  (2) has been going on
for many years.  (3) is still pie in the sky.  Even if (3) cannot
be built yet, I had hoped a concept patent might be obtainable.
However the work of the MIT Media Lab, crude as it is, suggests
that (3) would be "obvious to anyone skilled in the art".
Given that real-time microscopic phase modulation is the heart
of the MIT system, replacing ultrasound with a programmable array
of modulators when the technology becomes available is an obvious
improvement.  I don't think that a hand-waving description of
such an array in general terms would qualify as a patentable
contribution to the field.

        I think the PAO patents will lie not in the general idea
of PAOs, but in the specific technical tricks involved in their
implementation.  Jeff Soreff's brilliant idea of using rotating
birefringent crystals as phase shifters is a perfect example.
Unfortunately, like nanocomputer Rod Logic, the patent would
probably expire before a device that elegant is built.

        So rather than the guy who makes a billion dollars from
PAOs, I'm more likely just the guy who foresaw how far this
technology would someday go.  The best I can hope for is that
the terminology Phased Array Optics will catch on.  In my
unbiased opinion, it is much more descriptive and far-reaching
term than mere "holographic TV". :)

        Thanks again, everyone, for your interest.

---Brian Wowk

( nanotech.html#nanocomputer )

New Light Industries "Holographic printing and replication processes, Optical security seals, Nano-lithography and Micro-machining processes, and Genetic Algorithm applications" (Do they do any FPGAs ?) Has a list of patents for various types of holograms and hologram-related devices.

holography humor

OK, so I only have 1 pretty lame example of holography humor right now. Have you seen any others ?


The latest Holography links from infoseek.

You might want to use Search Tools to look up these related phrases: "computer holography" "digital hologram" "synthetic hologram"

You might want to find latest compute holography stuff on Lycos .

calculate holography stuff on Lycos .


Multi-Laser Hologram Reconstruction

coded aperture imaging in high-energy astronomy has many similarities to computer-generated holograms (fourier transformations). The Uniformly redundant arrays (URAs) used in these gamma-ray telescopes are 2 dimensional versions of the linear codes used in spread spectrum communications.

The "Laser Adventure " by Rami ARIELI ???

Interactive Computation of Holograms Using a Look-up Table Holoplex is a startup company doing holographic memories. They reportedly have a 100-image store available as a product. (rdv, 96/7/23) holographic data storage hardware

One company that apparently makes holograms commercially is

Franki Liu
Marketing Manager
Fuyong Holographic Label Co.
8G,  Fu Hua Mansion,  FuXing Ave.,  Fuyong Town
Shenzhen,  Guangdong Province , China  Postal code 518103
Tel/Fax: 86755-7397207

misc links

Started: 1996 Jun 22
Original Author: David Cary.
Current maintainer: David Cary.

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