Machine Vision

updated 2009-01-03.

Information I've found on "Machine Vision", which I have broadly defined as "Machines are sensitive to photons, the software that runs on them, and objects specifically designed to be viewed by these machines".

This includes

related pages:

I am particularly interested in real-time mobile-platform machine vision. If you find any relevant links, I'd appreciate you letting me know.


bouncing photons off the moon

bouncing photons off the moon

Oklahoma Imaging Laboratory
ES405: 405.744.7590 (David Cary, Zhongxiu Hu, Andrew Segall)
ES404: 405.744.7687 (more research assistants)
icbmto: 36.139584 N, 97.063035 W

The Oklahoma Imaging Laboratory
Engineering South 405
Stillwater OK 74078-5032

is where David Cary is working for Lucent

Scott T. Acton, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
School of Electrical & Computer Engineering
202 Engineering South
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-5032
Phone:  (405) 744-5250
Fax: (405) 744-9198
Email:  sacton at
Oklahoma Imaging Laboratory:

Real-time video processing / image processing

Real-time digital signal processing / system control

digital cameras

commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras

borescopes, fiberscopes and videoscopes

Video Phones

QuickCam details

Building and programming a digital camera

Commercial CCD chips; info on how to assemble them and getting single images. see webcam.html for info on putting those images online.

Non-Real-time video processing / image processing

Image Processing Software, Digital Image Processing, Machine Vision.

David Cary has some of the fundamental tools (erode, dilate, Huffman compress, linear filtering via FFT) written in MatLab at /* was */ .

mathematical morphology

[FIXME: want a easy-to-understand and mathematically correct definition of erode, dilate, open, close here, including gray-scale and binary versions; MatLab implementations can be found at ].

Let b be a structuring element, typically a small picture of a circle or square or horizontal line or vertical line, typically centered on coordinate (0,0). ...

clustering and color quantization

(related to human brain ?)



infrared sensors

"robot IR"

circuit board inspection

circuit board inspection

DAV did a project with infrared circuit board inspection ... I thought I had collected more links on the subject.

2-way infrared data communication

infrared communication

see also infrared sensors #infrared

[Do I have more IrDA info in my "Organizations" file ?] [Do I have more IR protocol information in a "DAV's photons FAQ" file ?]

pulsed LED communication (IR serial communication).

From: (Tom Maier)
Newsgroups: comp.robotics.misc
Subject: Re: Digital Remote Control
Date: Thu, 20 Mar 1997 13:35:29 GMT
Organization: MindSpring Enterprises, Inc.

Sevcik  wrote:

Hi Sevcik,

>> I've been able to get them to work up to 35 feet.  You probably
>> need to boost your transmission power.
>Tom, you may be right.  Do you remember what your LED current was ?

About 200 milliamps peak, if I remember right.

>> I get them to run at 1200 Baud with no problems.  Are you
>> using the type that Radio Shack is selling?
>>I did not get mine from Radio Shack.  I get 1200 baud, but can not
>send a string of 9 bits of light on.  The AGC reduces the gain till
>the last bits drop off.  So - I send every bit followed by it's
>compliment.  The line speed is 1200 baud, but half is redundant.
>How did you avoid this problem ?

I haven't noticed any of the dropping of the last bits.  The modules
I was using were from LITEON and I bought them from Digikey.
It's solid as a rock at 1200 Baud.  I did some designs for a company
and they run it at 1200 Baud and have not reported any problems.

Are you sure this is the AGC kicking in?  Could it be that the output
of your transmit LED is actually drooping during the transmission?
One thing to check is to see if you are getting droop on your drive
voltage to the LED during the last bits of the transmission.  Connect
a scope to the limiting resistor and see if this is happening.

A large cap right across the transmit LED circuit from V+ to ground is
also important.  About 100 uF or greater.  This helps to give better
instantaneous current to the transmit circuit.  This is especially
important if you are using a battery power source.

Maybe it's just a difference in the receiver module.


IR components:

photon sources

photon_sources (except for lasers laser.html )

[FIXME: consider moving this entire section to laser.html ?]

GPS, the Global Positioning System

(uses #spread_spectrum )

Here I just talk about getting the (x,y,z,t) information. Technically interesting, but useless by itself. This is just the first step -- next you either find your location on a map 3d_design.html#maps or you use your location in building a new map.

This is mostly technical details for people who want to *build* a GPS receiver. See #gps_receivers if you want to *buy* a GPS receiver.


reviews and general information on off-the-shelf GPS receivers.


See also A few GPS receivers that caught my eye .

see also 3d_design.html#maps for mapping software.

a few GPS receivers that caught my eye

a few GPS receivers that caught my eye See also reviews and general information on off-the-shelf GPS receivers .

wireless networking

the fast Fourier transform (FFT)

Other mathematical algorithms

laser time of flight

Photons travel at about 1 foot / ns =~= 1 mm / 3 ps. I used to think that would be far too difficult to measure accurately with reasonably-priced equipment, but I'm starting to hear rumors that clever tricks can do it with low-cost equipment. How ?

Can the same tricks be used to reduce the cost of transillumination unknowns_faq.html#transillumination equipment ? Or does transillumination equipment *already* use these tricks ?

Date: Thu, 19 Mar 1998 01:25:00 -0800 (PST)
From: Robert Freitas 

It is fairly well-known that the mean free path of a photon in soft human tissue is 10-100 microns, "depending...". Thus in typical soft tissue, after ~150 microns some 99% of all photons have suffered at least one scattering event. By contrast, the characteristic range for absorption in typical human soft tissue is on the order of a few millimeters. So what you're seeing coming through your thumb is photons that have been scattered many many times, but have not yet been absorbed by the tissue. That's why you get a generalized diffuse glow rather than a sharp image showing internal structures like an x-ray. (Blue is preferentially absorbed, which is why the glow appears red.)

It may interest you to know that transillumination is being actively investigated as a way to look for subdermal tumor masses noninvasively. They use extremely fast flashes and various shutter-timing tricks to filter out the scattered photons, so that their sensors can preferentially accumulate those exceedingly few "ballistic photons" that have not yet been scattered, and which therefore still contain useful information about absorbers (e.g. bones, dense tumor masses, etc.) lying in the beam path.

There's tons of literature references on all this stuff -- it's really quite "old hat"!


Robert A. Freitas Jr.

[FIXME: seems to be overlap / mixing between TOF and spread spectrum. Should I just mash into one big category ? How to properly seperate into 2 or more categories ?]

spread spectrum

related local links:

Spread-Spectrum, patented in 1942 by Hedy Lamarr (actor) and George Anthiel (composer).

Also miscellaneous semi-related information on range finding, and linear-feedback shift-registers (LFSRs).

Qualcomm sells a "Together, the MSM3000, an IF chip [the IFT3000 or IFR3000 IF chips] , and RF front end comprise all the system hardware required to implement an entire IS-95A or IS95B CDMA-compliant subscriber unit."

Binsfeld Engineering, Inc. "Binsfeld Engineering specializes in data transmission from rotating sources. ... telemetry systems and rotary transmitters"


up: spread spectrum

1D and 2D Optical Bar Codes and Magnetic Stripe Information Standards

[This is an old backup; the latest version is at ]

This is everything I know about bar codes. If you have any corrections or additions, please tell me. But what I'd *really* like is for someone else to maintain a FAQ.

Some related ideas at idea_space.html#improved_alphabets .

Many barcodes use some sort of ECC data_compression.html#ecc .

``All Bar Codes Are Not Created Equal'' compares and contrasts many 1D and 2D barcodes.

I am most interested in 2D barcodes:

2 D barcodes

2d encoders

2d encoders: many of them use some sort of 2d barcode.

DAV: I've seen linear and rotary encoders;

speculation on a "best possible" barcode

2003-06-07:DAV: I wonder what the "ideal best" barcode would look like. Some features we want:

  1. low error rate (if we get tons of errors, there's no point)
  2. low-cost to read
  3. low-cost to write (large gains here may be worth small sacrifices in reading)
  4. High density (is this already implied by "low cost" ?)

Is that it ?

Some limitations that influence bar code design:

1 D barcodes

1 D barcodes and mag stripe.

postal bar codes

See also international mailing addresses .

From: jhwhite at
Newsgroups: sci.electronics
Subject: Re: Snail-mail envelope barcode format?
Date: Sun, 26 Jun 94 15:20:49 -0500

William Lewis <wiml at> writes:

>I'm looking for information or pointers to sources of information on the
>format of the bar codes that are found on US snail mail. (They're
>along the bottom edge and consist of a number of short vertical
>lines of varying height. They encode the full 9-digit ZIP code and
>probably some other stuff as well, judging from their length.)

I worked at a USPS remote bar-coding facility for over 3 years, and here is
the information you want using an ASCII-representable format, where "/"
represents the long bars, and "." represents the short bars.

Every USPS bar-code starts with a long bar ("/") and ends with a long bar.
Each decimal digit of the zip code is represented by 2 longs bars and 3
short bars ("."), as well as the check digit.  Zip codes of 5 digits, 9
digits (ZIP+4), and 11 digits are commonly used.  The first 3 digits of
a zip are sufficient to determine the state or U.S. territory.  The 4th
and 5th digits determine the city or region.  The +4 digits give the
block number and postal carrier route identification for street addresses,
but in some cases identify a P.O. box.  The 10th and 11th digits identify
the residence, which in many cases are just the last 2 digits of the house

Zip codes are read from left to right (when the mail is oriented properly
for automatic sorting).  The five bars of each digit are assigned place
values.  The long bars of each 5-bar digit are given their place value
and added, while the short bars are given a value of 0.  The place values
of the five bars as read from left to right are 7, 4, 2, 1, and 0.

Because each digit must contain exactly 2 longs bars and 3 short bars, the
digit 0 is a special case.  What would add to 11 represents 0.  Here are
the single digit bar codes:

  //...    0 (Zero)
  ...//    1 (One)
  .././    2 (Two)
  ..//.    3 (Three)
  ./../    4 (Four)
  ././.    5 (Five)
  .//..    6 (Six)
  /.../    7 (Seven)
  /../.    8 (Eight)
  /./..    9 (Nine)

The check digit when summed with the 5,  9, or 11 digits of the zip code
gives a multiple of 10.

I will use the following real address as an example.  It just happens to
be the return address (no bar code to confuse the automatic sorter) on a
piece of mail I received this week.

    PO BOX 31769
    LOUISVILLE KY 40231-9769

Starting with a long bar and following with the 5-bar representations of
each digit, you should get the following before appending the check digit
and closing bar:

 / ./../ //... .././ ..//. ...// /./.. /.../ .//.. /./..
     4     0     2     3     1     9     7     6     9

Adding the 9 digits together results in 41.  Adding 9 will result in a
multiple of 10, or 50.  So the check digit is 9 ("/./..").  The bar codes
are evenly spaced, and thus the actual bar code of 40231-9769 would be
represented as:

    4    0    2    3    1    9    7    6    9    9

There are specifications on where to locate the bar code on the mailpiece, and
what sizes the long and short bars should be.  I do not remember what those

Jeff White     jhwhite at

All the specifications can be found in

United States Postal Service

Proposal for Hospital Barcoding

Proposal for Hospital Barcoding hbc.txt [FIXME: isn't this elsewhere on the net ?]

misc barcoding

From: Bob Greene, 72233,1015
To: Ronald L. Wan, 75740,2230
Topic: Barcode Total Solution?
Msg #197963, reply to #197956
Section: General [A] [0]
Forum: IBM Applications
Date: Wed, Mar 30, 1994, 12:13:22

I believe that we are using a scheme known as 3 of 9. As the Cheshire Cat said: "If you don't know where you're going, then it really doesn't matter which way you go." As long as you are not a POS then you will not have to concern yourself with the UPC format unless you want to. Choose one that suits your needs and standardize on it. I'm still looking for my old documentation to answer another users question. As soon as I find it, I'll plagiarize some text for you on the various formats available.

TMS uses a character field to store the bar code as ASCII text. When this field is printed for labels, a TSR monitors the print stream for the code and interprets it for printing. This way information is easily modifiable.

BTW: We found that our wands would not read the codes reliably unless they were 3 rows high or more. Keep this in mind when selecting labels. Otherwise, you'll end up with a few thousand that are unreadable like we did.

From: Bob Greene, 72233,1015
To: Ronald L. Wan, 75740,2230
Topic: Barcode Total Solution?
Msg #198003, reply to #198001
Section: General [A] [0]
Forum: IBM Applications
Date: Thu, Mar 31, 1994, 11:06:10

Our problem with the height of bar codes was related to the arcing motion that most people have when they move their arm. You may be able to get by with less. It just makes missed scans much less frequent to have the codes larger. In our case, missed scans sometimes equated to no scans because they would not try again to correct it. It led to several extra inventories for the sanity of our numbers.

smart card

smart cards are an alternative to "dumb" cards that merely have a magnetic stripe or bar code, although there are many hybrid smart cards that also have magnetic stripe.

Biometric systems

Biometric systems often (but not always) rely on some sort of "image" of a human, which is often stored in a Smart Card .



I have heard of the trade journal

BioCard International
7500 Old Oak Blvd
Cleveland OH 44130
(440) 243-1800

has information on hand print and related security devices,

Biometric fingerprint scanner

Light Visible to Humans

A far-overrated little sliver of the electromagnetic spectrum, in my opinion. see for the rest of the spectrum.

Um... humans aren't machines, so technically this doesn't belong on my ``machine vision'' web page. Where else can I put this ?


typical human vision

tetrachromate vision

Some humans have tetrachromate vision.

DTV (digital television) including HDTV

[FIXME: lots of other HDTV/television stuff scattered around in other files ...]

[FIXME: (Future History)] "David Layne, director of broadcast operations and engineering at KCNC-TV4, the CBS affiliate in Denver. ... For 30 years, CBS television has shot primetime shows on 16:9 (widescreen) high-definition 35mm film, "but until now we had no way to deliver the images to the public," ... ... The other networks will need to upconvert all their SDTV 4:3 content, a critical expense that CBS won't have to pay." -- Ken Freed, "Detailing Rocky Mountain Digital TV" article by Ken Freed in _TV Technology_ 1997 Nov. 6. "U.S. consumers spent $9.5 billion on television sets in 1996 alone, and more than a third of those were for big-screen home systems (30 inches or more). ... 40 percent of the big-screen TVs were purchased for households with annual income of less than $20,000. ... Layne thinks the FCC's date of 2002 for full HDTV implementation is unrealistic, and he expects market realities will push back the FCC's announced deadline of 2006 for turning off all NTSC broadcasts. "I think NTSC will be with us for another 10 to 15 years, at least." ... ... TV4 and the other Denver stations plan to begin HDTV operations by the fourth quarter of 1999."


"Quadrant Int. in Pennsylvania has a real-time video capture PC card available. Check out" -- chrise at (Chris Edgington cedgingt at Enter the URL of some image already on the web, the choose one of many special effects ... pointillism ... ... some create animated gifs that move -- swirl and wavey.

Pattern Recognition Letters

University of Wisconsin - Madison Computer Vision Group

The Oklahoma Imaging Laboratory
405 Engineering South
Stillwater OK 74078-5032

Opto Technology sells ultra-high-intensity LEDs, including (prices from EEPN 1998 July p. 17):

National Instruments sells the
$2495 IMAQ Vision ActiveX Controls library of image processing and machine vision functions. (1998-07)

Intel's PC Imaging Web site

Toshiba Imaging Systems

Video/Imaging Image Processing Chips

the Speech, Vision and Robotics Group at the Cambridge University Engineering Department .

the Computer Vision Homepage has pointers to many test images: color stereo pairs, fingerprints, human faces, real and synthetic motion analysis sequences, ...

Yale University Artificial Intelligence Group has some interesting visual tracking projects.

Dixon, p. 210 "Two conditions must be satisfied for any filter to be "matched": 1. Its impulse response must be a time-reversed replica of the signal to which it is matched. 2. Any particular unit of information must be independent of that preceding and succeeding it. ... integrate-and-dump filters meet these conditions." DAC: this is the best possible matching for a *linear* filter; but are there better possibilities for nonlinear circuits ? "if the input is a square wave ... For any other signal shape, however (assuming the peak voltage is the same), the charge at the end of delta_t is lower" [DAV: so, I guess Dixon assumes the AGC functions on *peak* rather than *average*] DAC: cool concept -- a high-Q parallel-tuned circuit for RF integrate-and-dump at IF; rather than standard RC integrator at baseband. "Consider the RC integrator, with both its switches open. An impulse at its imput charges the capacitor to a level (I[peak]/dt)/C, which remains until dumped. This is exactly the same as the desired flat-topped square pulse. For the integrator that uses a high-Q tuned circuit, the input impulse causes the circuit to ring at the tuned frequency -- again forming the duplicate of a desired input signal.

ring laser

ring laser gyroscopes


Marshall Electronics, Inc. Optical Systems Division $29 V-X009 single-chip NTSC(or PAL) color camera, 352x240 color pixels, better than 40 dB signal/noise ratio (price from p. 71 1997 Oct _Advanced Imaging_)

Wavelet Resources

What is morphometrics;col=WW&amp;sv=IS&amp;lk=noframes ?

> **** New Machine Slashes Time, Cost To Make Unique Lenses - EurekAlert > > Engineers from the University of Rochester and seven corporate partners, > working with the U.S. Department of Defense, have developed the first > system to automate the manufacture of unusually shaped lenses known as > aspheres. Its developers say the machine is capable of producing these > aspheric lenses in minutes, not days, at a fraction of the current cost; > the savings should trickle down to products ranging from 35-millimeter > cameras and medical endoscopes to military-grade night-vision goggles.

search for TI CCD sensor chips Action=FilterSearch&amp; Filter=TI.filter.hts&amp; SCOPE=Semiconductors&amp; KEYWDS=CCD [this search tool has a broken parser that doesn't recognize ``;'', see html.html#semicolon ]

the Robot FAQ has a "Imaging for Robotics" section has lots of information on frame grabbers and other robotic imaging applications.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Medical Imaging Laboratory seems to be interested in "Computer Integrated Surgery" .

Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence Research at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Clemson University

Image Processing within Hexagonal Grids has a freely available "Vision Software Development Kit" and describes some interesting research projects, includeing "Vision-Based User Interfaces allow computers to recognize people and interpret what they are doing, using fast algorithms for real-time detection and recognition of people and their gestures." ???

Cybernetic Vision in the WWW ???

-- Tristan Savatier (President, MpegTV LLC) MpegTV: MPEG.ORG: "automatic identification and data capture"

Robotic Vision Systems, Inc. machine vision and 2D symbologies ???

Latest Yahoo listing of Computer Vision web sites

Why We See Three-Dimensional Objects: Another Approach "the human mind's tendency to simplify inputs and find patterns even where there are none" "the human mind has an in-built compression system of sorts; it will always store the data in a minimal fashion." "the program was converted to compile and build using standard X-Windows and GNU's gcc and could then be built and run on virtually any UNIX box."

Segmentation by a Scalespace Approach includes cool online demo: "Try it out: Online-Segmentation of your data!"

Texture Segmentation: An Introductory Primer by Mark A. Ruzon mentions "Steerable pyramids" "Steerable pyramids ... are called steerable because, by using only a small number of filters corresponding to a few directions, the output of a filter in any direction can easily be computed as a weighted sum of the filters that have already been calculated."

Advanced Imaging Solutions segmentation, medical imaging (ultrasound), etc. The WDEKnow project has Matlab code for image segmentation.

"low cost frame grabber" "machine vision hardware and software" ??? ??? ???

Learning and Vision Group Robotics and Machine Vision

Digital Cameras
From: Jeff Burton <jeff at>
Subject: Re: (semi-faq) for all digital cameras
Date: 10 Oct 1995 05:29:49 GMT
Organization: Plug-In Systems

In article <45b76t$> Kirk Membry,
kmembry at internetMCI.COM writes:
>I'm going to attempt to compile a list of all digital cameras
>(including models) and put them on a web page I'm creating.
>I've just thought of this now, so I don't have any info (yet)
>Please help me out on this.

you might take a look at the digital camera guide at

( maybe all you really need is just a link :)

Jeff Burton       +   Photographic Solutions for   +   Plug-In Systems
jeff at   +        the Digital Age         +   Boulder, CO USA

The R Package: a collection of small programs for Multidimensional analysis, spatial analysis.

ImagingConcepts Imaging Concepts is an image processing package designed for use by Medical Imaging students, Remote Sensing Image Analysis students and anyone else that needs to manipulate and analyze images. Unsupervised Migrating Mean Classification public domain software.

1280x1024 square pixel CCD camera 1000fps 128x128 image acquisition

Visionary Solutions Inc. "designs and builds customized state of the art digital video cameras and related video components"

MDDSP - The Multidimensional Signal Processing Research Group

Inventions Ltd. Imaging Software claims to have a "optimal palette reduction" algorithm better than any other way of reducing a true color image to a pallette image. (The 16-color demo is very impressive !) (I'm guessing that they are using the K-means "migrating means" clustering algorithm).

Vismod Tech Reports and Publications lots of papers related to machine vision, including "Real-Time American Sign Language Recognition Using Desk and Wearable Computer Based Video"

The latest threads on the sci.image.processing newsgroup

A "Kohonen neural network", vector quantization, and k-means clustering are all different names for the same thing, according to the Neural Network FAQ .

"Media Cybernetics: The Imaging Experts" develops image analysis software, sells "Image-Pro Plus(TM)".

Rockwell Semiconductor, personal imaging division, claims its CMOS imaging sensors (Active Pixel Sensor and Passive Pixel Sensor configurations) are less expensive to manufacture than CCDs, and can deliver comparable image quality (352x288 ... 640x480 ... and 960x720 sensors already ready) while using much less power (1998 March)

The Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University has done some very interesting work and published many good papers. You might check out their web site for [information on machine CCD vision]

WINNOV internet videophone cameras ??? some machine vision information, and C source code. (mostly in Deutsch).

The "SUSAN" principle algorithms to perform edge detection, corner detection and structure-preserving image noise reduction. This site includes papers, a patent, and C source code (reads and writes PGM format images). Voronoï diagrams, Delaunay triangulations, 2D high-quality mesh generation, 3D mesh generation.

Wavelet Image Compression quick news article on wavelets.

"Plotting and Scheming with Wavelets"

_The World According to Wavelets: 2nd ed._ book by Barbara Burke Hubbard "A well written introductory book that explains the mathematics of wavelets" -- recc. Chuck Carlson <sanna at> To: Computing as Compression <casc at> Date: Thu, 20 Aug 1998 lots of infrared photography information; the Infrared-Photography Mailinglist

Evolutionary Computation Research: A GA Toolbox for use with MATLAB I hope to make a few image procressing tools available similar to the way this page makes some GA tools available. has satellite images centered on Portland, OR; has images centered on California; etc.

Dr. Jim Bezdek "Current research topics: multiple prototype classifier designs, mixed fuzzy-possibilistic c-means clustering models, rule extraction with clustering, generalized nearest prototype classifier networks, fusion of heterogeneous fuzzy data, target recognition with LADAR data, mammographic image analysis, topics in cluster validity, robotic control models, fuzzy learning vector quantization, clustering with genetic algorithms, and acceleration of image processing algorithms."

fuzzy image processing (?)

The Robotics and Image Analysis (RIA) Laboratory at the University of West Florida

Wavelet Resources includes "Introductions to Wavelets", "General Theory", "Frame Decompositions", "Wavelets and General Signal Processing", "Wavelets and Image Processing", "Wavelets and Computer Graphics", "The FBI Wavelet Fingerprint Compression Standard", "Wavelets and Econometrics", "Wavelets and Fractals", "Hardware and Software Implementation of Wavelet Transforms", etc.

SkyTel seem to have a lot of hack value in their products:

PennWell Media has some related publications: _Wireless Integration_ _Laser Focus World_

Liquid Crystal Displays very good explaination. Lots of good graphics.

Optical Switch Corporation ???

"Bell Labs scientists create "T-Rays" to see inside objects" mirror: 1998 Fall: David Cary took "Ultrafast Optoelectronics" and a learned a little about terahertz radiation from Dr. Grischkowsky. Here's some more info. T-Ray Images . [FIXME: email link to Dr. Gr.:] "Lawbreakers?" article 2000-08-17 "John Singleton and his team at the Clarendon Laboratory are ... to build a tabletop device which is expected to ... do two ... emit radiation across a vast range of the electromagnetic spectrum; and the intensity of some of this radiation will diminish with distance much more slowly than is usually the case. ... Sceptics say the so-called "polarisation synchrotron" cannot possibly work ... The theory behind the device is the brainchild of Houshang Ardavan, an astrophysicist at Cambridge University who dreamed it up in the early 1990s to explain the behaviour of pulsars. These are dense, spinning neutron stars ... Current artificial radiation sources suffer from a problem called the "terahertz gap". There are not many devices which emit radiation at several million million cycles per second, and those that do exist are unwieldy. A tabletop pulsar tuned to emit at these frequencies would thus be useful for all sorts of things that rely on terahertz radiation, from medical imaging to satellite-based detection of atmospheric pollutants. "

Don's light, lamp and strobe site Blue LEDs, incandescent and fluorescent lighting theory, lasers, Xenon flash and strobe, Visible line spectra of various elements and a few common light sources.

Hyperception, Inc. "engineering software, hardware, and system solutions for DSP, Image Processing, and Virtual Instrumentation" some free demos available for download.

Data Translation "PC based data acquisition, imaging, and machine vision systems" "PCI frame grabbers" "PCI data acquisition hardware" "ISA data acquisition & DSP hardware" "PCMCIA data acquisition" "HP VEE visual programming language" (some of the hardware and software works with the Macintosh) nice app notes (Data Acquisition Tutorials)(Imaging/Machine Vision Tutorials)

Open Data Acquisition Association (ODAA). "A non-profit organization whose objective is to provide users of data acquisition systems with a universal, open standard that allows interoperability between PC-based data acquisition hardware and software solutions from multiple vendors."

ATS sells FiRLAN "Fast Infrared LAN", a wireless network.

Weather and Satellite Images ???

Fire Finder, Infrared Heat Detectors ???

Research in Image Processing and Computer Vision at UC Davis

$ 2 000 PCI bus-mastering frame grabber Cognex Corp.

American Bright Optoelectronics

Robots with a Vision "This robot, equipped with a color-conscious vision system, can chase down your wayward tennis balls." ???

Bill and Jacks Robot and Video Page robot plans, surplus $35 color CCD video cameras for sale, a few other cheap surplus electronics. ... (cool !)

Using a Kodak DC-120 for Astrophotography "the Kodak DC-120 is not ideal as an astronomical camera, but if you happen to have one there is a possiblity to take simple shots of constellation star fields and telescopic shots of the moon and planets."

Exploratory Computer Vision and Intelligent Robotics (at IBM) spectrum analyzer uses the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) can do stereo FFT spectrum using PC sound card or Wave file input; also has stereo wave output generator.

Toshiba Imaging Systems Division

"There are certain kinds of patterns the eye doesn't see," explains Chai Wah Wu (working with Charles Tresser)

This page Started: 1998-02-21 and has backlinks

known by AltaVista

known by Yahoo!

known by infoseek

comments, suggestions, errors, bug reports to

David Cary

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